The writing was already on the wall for Napoleon. Pius VII was a changed man, frailer and much more conservative, but his major work had been done. The Concordat remained substantially intact even after the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy. Pius VII had not only helped the Church to survive its greatest test in modern times. He had changed it in the process, creating the combination of powerful Papacy and grassroots pilgrimage that would help Catholicism flourish in the age of mass politics.